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SDGS in the Year 2030. Will Rhetoric be Fullfiled? A Glance at past Time lines PDF Print E-mail
Justice News
Posted by Joan Russow
Sunday, 16 August 2015 10:24
 

By Joan Russow

Global Compliane Research Project originally written in 2002

 

If states comply with these many instruments, the global community will have more respect for the rule of international law, and more faith in the United Nations, including for the compliance with and implementation of the SDGs. Credit: UN Photo/Joao Araujo Pinto

If states comply with these many instruments, the global community will have more respect for the rule of international law, and more faith in the United Nations, including for the compliance with and implementation of the SDGs.

 

Credit: UN Photo/Joao Araujo Pinto Project  from http://www.ipsnews.net/2015/04/the-u-n-at-70-a-time-for-compliance/

 

 

For the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development, I  went through years of time bound  International commitments and circulated  a document

. IF the  SDGS time-bound  commitments are to be fulfilled, states must sign and ratify all relevant  international Conventions and covenants  and enact the necessary legislation to ensure compliance. And  institute  a global mechanism of enforcement  

though the international Court of Justice and the international Criminal Court and to  ensure  that no state is above international law.
 
The Following  is a compilation of years of commitments made through international Action  Plans. Institutional memory is very short !

 

  I Thought  that it could be sung to  the tune of “In the Year 2525” if man isa still alive https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=izQB2 in the year 2525

 

IN THE YEAR 1993

 

By 1993, the international community should have initiated a consultative process aimed at increasing cooperation between local authorities; 28.2. (b) Agenda 21 UNCED

 

The OECD Council has decided that OECD member countries should establish or strengthen national risk reduction programmes.  The International Council of Chemical Associations (ICCA) has introduced initiatives regarding responsible care and product stewardship aimed at reduction of chemical risks.  The Awareness and Preparedness for Emergencies at Local Level (APELL) programme of UNEP is designed to assist decision makers and technical personnel in improving community awareness of hazardous installations and in preparing response plans.  ILO has published a Code of Practice on the prevention of major industrial accidents and is preparing an international instrument on the prevention of industrial disasters for eventual adoption in 1993. 19.47. Agenda 21 UNCED

 

The integration of the value of unpaid work, including work that is currently designated "domestic", in resource accounting mechanisms in order better to represent the true value of the contribution of women to the economy, using revised guidelines for the United Nations System of National Accounts, to be issued in 1993;   24.8 (e)Agenda 21 UNCED

                                                                                                                                                    

 

Establish procedures allowing for consultation and possible participation of youth of both genders, by 1993, in decision-making processes with regard to the environment, involving youth at the local, national and regional levels; 25.9 (a)  Agenda 21 UNCED

 

Some of the goals inherent in the objectives and activities of this programme area are already contained in such international legal instruments as the ILO Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention (No. 169) and are being incorporated into the draft universal declaration on indigenous rights, being prepared by the United Nations working group on indigenous populations.  The International Year for the World's Indigenous People (1993), proclaimed by the General Assembly in its resolution 45/164 of 18 December 1990, presents a timely opportunity to mobilize further international technical and financial cooperation. 26.2.  Agenda 21 UNCED

 

IN THE YEAR 1994  

 

By 1994, representatives of associations of cities and other local authorities should have increased levels of cooperation and coordination with the goal of enhancing the exchange of information and experience among local authorities;  (c) Agenda 21 UNCED

 

Governments and other relevant actors could, inter alia, undertake the following activities, with appropriate assistance from aid agencies, and report on their status of implementation to the International Conference on Population and Development to be held in 1994, especially to its committee on population and environment.  5.18. Agenda 21 UNCED

 

The relationships between demographic trends and factors and environmental change and between environmental degradation and the components of demographic change should be analysed.  5.19.  Agenda 21 UNCED

 

Research should be conducted on how environmental factors interact with socio-economic factors as a cause of migration.  5.20. Agenda 21 UNCED

 

Vulnerable population groups (such as rural landless workers, ethnic minorities, refugees, migrants, displaced people, women heads of household) whose changes in demographic structure may have specific impacts on sustainable development should be identified. 5.21.  Agenda 21 UNCED

 

An assessment should be made of the implications of the age structure of the population on resource demand and dependency burdens, ranging from educational expenses for the young to health care and support for the elderly, and on household income generation.

5.22.  Agenda 21 UNCED

 

An assessment should also be made of national population carrying capacity in the context of satisfaction of human needs and sustainable development, and special attention should be given to critical resources, such as water and land, and environmental factors, such as ecosystem health and biodiversity. 5.23.  Agenda 21 UNCED

 

The impact of national demographic trends and factors on the traditional livelihoods of indigenous groups and local communities, including changes in traditional land use because of internal population pressures, should be studied. 5.24.  Agenda 21 UNCED

 

 National databases on demographic trends and factors and environment should be built and/or strengthened, disaggregating data by ecological region (ecosystem approach), and population/environment profiles should be established by region.

5.25. Agenda 21 UNCED

 

Methodologies and instruments should be developed to identify areas where sustainability is, or may be, threatened by the environmental effects of demographic trends and factors, incorporating both current and projected demographic data linked to natural environmental processes.  5.26.  Agenda 21 UNCED

 

Case-studies of local level responses by different groups to demographic dynamics should be developed, particularly in areas subject to environmental stress and in deteriorating urban centres. 5.27. Agenda 21 UNCED

 

Population data should be disaggregated by, inter alia, sex and age in order to take into account the implications of the gender division of labour for the use and management of natural resources. 5.28.  Agenda 21 UNCED

 

In formulating human settlements policies, account should be taken of resource needs, waste production and ecosystem health. 5.29.  Agenda 21 UNCED

 

The direct and induced effects of demographic changes on environment and development programmes should, where appropriate, be integrated, and the impact on demographic features assessed. 5.30.  Agenda 21 UNCED

 

National population policy goals and programmes that are consistent with national environment and development plans for sustainability and in keeping with the freedom, dignity and personally held values of individuals should be established and implemented.

5.31.  Agenda 21 UNCED

 

Appropriate socio-economic policies for the young and the elderly, both in terms of family and state support systems, should be developed.

5.32.  Agenda 21 UNCED

 

Policies and programmes should be developed for handling the various types of migrations that result from or induce environmental disruptions, with special attention to women and vulnerable groups.5.33.  Agenda 21 UNCED

 

Demographic concerns, including concerns for environmental migrants and displaced people, should be incorporated in the programmes for sustainable development of relevant international and regional institutions 5.34.  Agenda 21 UNCED

 

National reviews should be conducted and the integration of population policies in national development and environment strategies should be monitored nationally.5.35.  Agenda 21 UNCED

 

Governments and local communities, including community-based women's organizations and national non-governmental organizations, consistent with national plans, objectives, strategies and priorities, could, inter alia, undertake the activities set out below with the assistance and cooperation of international organizations, as appropriate.  Governments could share their experience in the implementation of Agenda 21 at the International Conference on Population and Development, to be held in 1994, especially its committee on population and environment.5.44.  Agenda 21 UNCED

 

The recommendations contained in this chapter should in no way prejudice discussions at the International Conference on Population and Development in 1994, which will be the appropriate forum for dealing with population and development issues, taking into account the recommendations of the International Conference on Population, held in Mexico City in 1984, 1/ and the Forward-looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women, 2/ adopted by the World Conference to Review and Appraise the Achievements of the United Decade for Women:  Equality, Development and Peace, held in Nairobi in 1985.

5.66.  Agenda 21 UNCED

 

To request the General Assembly at its forty-seventh session to establish, under the aegis of the General Assembly, an intergovernmental negotiating committee for the elaboration of an international convention to combat desertification, in those countries experiencing serious drought and/or desertification, particularly in Africa, with a view to finalizing such a convention by June 1994 12.40.  Agenda 21 UNCED

 

States should cooperate, as appropriate, in the preparation of national guidelines for integrated coastal zone management and development, drawing on existing experience.  A global conference to exchange experience in the field could be held before 1994.

17.11.  Agenda 21 UNCED

 

By 1994, representatives of associations of cities and other local authorities should have increased levels of cooperation and coordination with the goal of enhancing the exchange of information and experience among local authorities; 28.2  (c) Agenda 21 UNCED

 

Each country should aim to complete, as soon as practicable, if possible by 1994, a review of capacity- and capability-building requirements for devising national sustainable development strategies, including those for generating and implementing its own Agenda 21 action programme; 37.4 (a) Agenda 21 UNCED

 

IN THE YEAR 1995

By 1995, to reduce measles deaths by 95 per cent and reduce measles cases by 90 per cent compared with pre-immunization levels; Agenda 21 UNCED Agenda 21 UNCED 6.12 d Agenda 21 UNCED

 

By 1995, to review and, where appropriate, establish a programme to integrate environmental and sustainable development with policy analysis for the food and agriculture sector and relevant macroeconomic policy analysis, formulation and implementation; 14.8. 

(a) Agenda 21 UNCED

 

Past experience has shown that specific targets should be set by each individual country.  At the World Summit for Children, in September 1990, heads of State or Government called for both universal access to water-supply and sanitation and the eradication of guinea worm disease by 1995.  Even for the more realistic target of achieving full coverage in water-supply by 2025, it is estimated that annual investments must reach double the current levels.  One realistic strategy to meet present and future needs, therefore, is to develop lower-cost but adequate services that can be implemented and sustained at the community level. 18.49.Agenda 21 UNCED

 

In the year 1995, in industrialized countries, and in the year 2005, in developing countries, ensure that at least 50 per cent of all sewage, waste waters and solid wastes are treated or disposed of in conformity with national or international environmental and health quality guidelines; 21.29 (c) Agenda 21 UNCED

 

To establish in the year 1995 mechanisms at the national, regional and international levels to assess the implementation and impact of development and environment policies and programmes on women and to ensure their contributions and benefits; 24.2 (d) Agenda 21 UNCED

 

By 1995, a mutually productive dialogue should be established at the national level between all Governments and non-governmental organizations and their self-organized networks to recognize and strengthen their respective roles in implementing environmentally sound and sustainable development. 27.7.Agenda 21 UNCED

 

By 1995, to reduce measles deaths by 95 per cent and reduce measles cases by 90 per cent compared with pre-immunization levels; 6.12 (d) Agenda 21 UNCED

 

By continued efforts, to provide health and hygiene education and to ensure universal access to safe drinking water and universal access to sanitary measures of excreta disposal, thereby markedly reducing waterborne diseases such as cholera and schistosomiasis and reducing: 6.12  (e) Agenda 21 UNCED

 

Countries with the support of the United Nations system should identify workforce training needs and assess measures to be taken to meet those needs.  A review of progress in this area could be undertaken by the United Nations system in 1995.36.14.  Agenda 21 UNCED

 

IN THE YEAR 1996

To review and develop policies to support the best possible use of land and the sustainable management of land resources, by not later than 1996; 10,5  (a) Agenda 21 UNCED

 

To create mechanisms to facilitate the active involvement and participation of all concerned, particularly communities and people at the local level, in decision-making on land use and management, by not later than 1996 10.5 (d) Agenda 21 UNCED

 

The broad objective is to facilitate allocation of land to the uses that provide the greatest sustainable benefits and to promote the transition to a sustainable and integrated management of land resources.  In doing so, environmental, social and economic issues should be taken into consideration.  Protected areas, private property rights, the rights of indigenous people and their communities and other local communities and the economic role of women in agriculture and rural development, among other issues, should be taken into account.  In more specific terms, the objectives are as follows: 10.5.  Agenda 21 UNCED

 

To review and develop policies to support the best possible use of land and the sustainable management of land resources, by not later than 1996;  (a) Agenda 21 UNCED

 

By 1996, most local authorities in each country should have undertaken a consultative process with their populations and achieved a consensus on "a local Agenda 21" for the community;  (a) Agenda 21 UNCED

 

To review and develop policies to support the best possible use of land and the sustainable management of land resources, by not later than 1996; (a) Agenda 21 UNCED

 

 

IN THE YEAR 1997

 

By 1997, the Secretary-General of the United Nations should submit to the General Assembly a report on achievement of improved policies, coordination systems and procedures for strengthening the implementation of technical cooperation programmes for sustainable development, as well as on additional measures required to strengthen such cooperation.  That report should be prepared on the basis of information provided by countries, international organizations, environment and development institutions, donor agencies and non-governmental partners. 37.4 (b) Agenda 21 UNCED

 

The General Assembly, as the highest level inter-governmental mechanism, is the principal policy-making and appraisal organ on matters relating to the follow-up of UNCED. The General Assembly would organize a regular review of the implementation of Agenda 21. In fulfilling this task the General Assembly could consider the timing, format and organizational aspects of such a review.  In particular, the General Assembly could consider holding a special session no later than 1997 for the purposes of overall review and appraisal of Agenda 21, with adequate preparations at a high level.

38.9.Agenda 21 UNCED

 

IN THE YEAR 1998

The broad objective is to facilitate allocation of land to the uses that provide the greatest sustainable benefits and to promote the transition to a sustainable and integrated management of land resources.  In doing so, environmental, social and economic issues should be taken into consideration.  Protected areas, private property rights, the rights of indigenous people and their communities and other local communities and the economic role of women in agriculture and rural development, among other issues, should be taken into account.  In more specific terms, the objectives are as follows: 10.5.  Agenda 21 UNCED

 

To strengthen institutions and coordinating mechanisms for land and land resources, by not later than 1998; (c) Agenda 21 UNCED

 

To strengthen institutions and coordinating mechanisms for land and land resources, by not later than 1998; 10.5 (c) Agenda 21 UNCED

 

To maintain and develop, as appropriate, operational multisectoral plans, programmes and policy measures, including programmes and measures to enhance sustainable food production and food security within the framework of sustainable development, not later than 1998;  14.8 (b) Agenda 21 UNCED

 

Not later than the year 1998, to establish operational and interactive networks among farmers, researchers and extension services to promote and develop integrated pest management. 14.75 (c) Agenda 21 UNCED

 

 

IN THE YEAR 1999

 

CULMINATION OF THE DECADE DEVOTED TO THE FURTHERANCE OF INTERNATIONAL LAW

 

 

IN THE YEAR 1999

CULMINATION OF THE DECADE DEVOTED TO THE FURTHERANCE OF INTERNATIONAL LAW

 

IN THE YEAR 2000

 

To improve and strengthen planning, management and evaluation systems for land and land resources, by not later than 2000; 6 b, Agenda 21,UNCED

 

Within the overall strategy to achieve health for all in the year 2000, the objectives are to meet the basic health needs of rural peri-urban and urban populations; to provide the necessary specialized environmental health services; and to coordinate the involvement of citizens, the health sector, the health-related sectors and relevant non-health sectors (business, social, educational and religious institutions) in solutions to health problems.  As a matter of priority, health service coverage should be achieved for population groups in greatest need, particularly those living in rural areas. 6.4  Agenda 21 UNCED

 

The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost (1993-2000) of implementing the activities of this programme to be about $40 billion, including about $5 billion from the international community on grant or concessional terms.  These are indicative and order of magnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments.  Actual costs and financial terms, including any that are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies and programmes Governments decide upon for implementation.

6.6.Agenda 21 UNCED

 

A number of goals have been formulated through extensive consultations in various international forums attended by virtually all Governments, relevant United Nations organizations (including WHO, UNICEF, UNFPA, UNESCO, UNDP and the World Bank) and a number of non-governmental organizations.  Goals (including but not limited to those listed below) are recommended for implementation by all countries where they are applicable, with appropriate adaptation to the specific situation of each country in terms of phasing, standards, priorities and availability of resources, with respect for cultural, religious and social aspects, in keeping with freedom, dignity and personally held values and taking into account ethical considerations.  Additional goals that are particularly relevant to a country's specific situation should be added in the country's national plan of action (Plan of Action for Implementing the World Declaration on the Survival, Protection and Development of Children in the 1990s 1/).  Such national level action plans should be coordinated and monitored from within the public health sector.  Some major goals are:

6.12.Agenda 21 UNCED

In the year 2000

 

In the year 2000, to eliminate guinea worm disease (dracunculiasis); 6.12 (a) Agenda 21 UNCED

In the year 2000, eradicate polio;6.12 (b)  Agenda 21 UNCED

In the year 2000, to effectively control onchocerciasis (river blindness) and leprosy; (c)

In the year 2000, the number of deaths from childhood diarrhoea in developing countries by 50 to 70 per cent; 6.12 (i) Agenda 21 UNCED

(ii) In the year 2000, the incidence of childhood diarrhoea in developing countries by at least 25 to 50 per cent; 6.12 Agenda 21 UNCED

 

In the year 2000, to initiate comprehensive programmes to reduce mortality from acute respiratory infections in children under five years by at least one third, particularly in countries with high infant mortality; 6.12 (f) Agenda 21 UNCED

 

In the year 2000, to provide 95 per cent of the world's child population with access to appropriate care for acute respiratory infections within the community and at first referral level; 6.12(g) Agenda 21 UNCED

 

In the year 2000, to institute anti-malaria programmes in all countries where malaria presents a significant health problem and maintain the transmission-free status of areas freed from endemic malaria; 6.12 (h) Agenda 21 UNCED

 

In the year 2000, to implement control programmes in countries where major human parasitic infections are endemic and achieve an overall reduction in the prevalence of schistosomiasis and of other trematode infections by 40 per cent and 25 per cent, respectively, from a 1984 baseline, as well as a marked reduction in incidence, prevalence and intensity of filarial infections; 6.12 (i) Agenda 21 UNCED

 

To mobilize and unify national and international efforts against AIDS to prevent infection and to reduce the personal and social impact of HIV infection; 6.12  (j) Agenda 21 UNCED

 

To contain the resurgence of tuberculosis, with particular emphasis on multiple antibiotic resistant forms; 6.12 (k) Agenda 21 UNCED

 

To accelerate research on improved vaccines and implement to the fullest extent possible the use of vaccines in the prevention of disease. 6.12 (l) Agenda 21 UNCED

 

The health and well-being of all urban dwellers must be improved so that they can contribute to economic and social development.  The global objective is to achieve a 10 to 40 per cent improvement in health indicators in the year 2000.  The same rate of improvement should be achieved for environmental, housing and health service indicators.  These include the development of quantitative objectives for infant mortality, maternal mortality, percentage of low birth weight newborns and specific indicators (e.g. tuberculosis as an indicator of crowded housing, diarrhoeal diseases as indicators of inadequate water and sanitation, rates of industrial and transportation accidents that indicate possible opportunities for prevention of injury, and social problems such as drug abuse, violence and crime that indicate underlying social disorders).6.33.Agenda 21 UNCED

 

The overall objective is to minimize hazards and maintain the environment to a degree that human health and safety is not impaired or endangered and yet encourage development to proceed.  Specific programme objectives are:

6.40.Agenda 21 UNCED

 

In the year 2000, to incorporate appropriate environmental and health safeguards as part of national development programmes in all countries; 6.40.(a)  Agenda 21 UNCED

 

In the year 2000, to establish, as appropriate, adequate national infrastructure and programmes for providing environmental injury, hazard surveillance and the basis for abatement in all countries; 6.40.(b) Agenda 21 UNCED

 

In the year 2000, to establish, as appropriate, integrated programmes for tackling pollution at the source and at the disposal site, with a focus on abatement actions in all countries; 6.40. (c) Agenda 21 UNCED

 

To identify and compile, as appropriate, the necessary statistical information on health effects to support cost/benefit analysis, including environmental health impact assessment for pollution control, prevention and abatement measures. 6.40.(d) Agenda 21 UNCED

 

The broad objective is to facilitate allocation of land to the uses that provide the greatest sustainable benefits and to promote the transition to a sustainable and integrated management of land resources.  In doing so, environmental, social and economic issues should be taken into consideration.  Protected areas, private property rights, the rights of indigenous people and their communities and other local communities and the economic role of women in agriculture and rural development, among other issues, should be taken into account.  In more specific terms, the objectives are as follows:

10.5.  Agenda 21 UNCED

 

To review and develop policies to support the best possible use of land and the sustainable management of land resources, by not later than 1996; 10.5. (a)  Agenda 21 UNCED

To improve and strengthen planning, management and evaluation systems for land and land resources, by not later than 2000; 10.5.(b)  Agenda 21 UNCED        

To strengthen institutions and coordinating mechanisms for land and land resources, by not later than 1998;10.5. (c)  Agenda 21 UNCED

To create mechanisms to facilitate the active involvement and participation of all concerned, particularly communities and people at the local level, in decision-making on land use and management, by not later than 1996.10.5. (d)  Agenda 21 UNCED

 

This is the foundation of the "enabling approach" advocated for the human settlement sector.  External assistance will help to generate the internal resources needed to improve the living and working environments of all people in the year 2000 and beyond, including the growing number of unemployed - the no-income group.  At the same time the environmental implications of urban development should be recognized and addressed in an integrated fashion by all countries, with high priority being given to the needs of the urban and rural poor, the unemployed and the growing number of people without any source of income. 7.3.Agenda 21 UNCED

 

A major global programme to address this problem is the Global Strategy for Shelter to the Year 2000, adopted by the General Assembly in December 1988 (resolution 43/181, annex).  Despite its widespread endorsement, the Strategy needs a much greater level of political and financial support to enable it to reach its goal of facilitating adequate shelter for all by the end of the century and beyond. 7.7.  Agenda 21 UNCED

 

All countries should adopt and/or strengthen national shelter strategies, with targets based, as appropriate, on the principles and recommendations contained in the Global Strategy for Shelter to the Year 2000.  People should be protected by law against unfair eviction from their homes or land; 7.9(b) Agenda 21 UNCED

 

Global progress reports covering national action and the support activities of international organizations and bilateral donors should be produced and disseminated on a biennial basis, as requested in the Global Strategy for Shelter to the Year 2000. 7.9 (j) Agenda 21 UNCED

 

The objective is to ensure the provision of adequate environmental infrastructure facilities in all settlements in the year 2025.  The achievement of this objective would require that all developing countries incorporate in their national strategies programmes to build the necessary technical, financial and human resource capacity aimed at ensuring better integration of infrastructure and environmental planning in the year 2000. 7.38. Agenda 21 UNCED

 

Specific human resource development and capacity-building activities have been built into each of the programme areas of this chapter.  More generally, however, additional steps should be taken to reinforce those activities.  In order to do so, all countries, as appropriate, should take the following action: 7.77.  Agenda 21 UNCED

 

Strengthening the development of human resources and of capacities of public sector institutions through technical assistance and international cooperation so as to achieve in the year 2000 substantial improvement in the efficiency of governmental activities; 7.77. (a) Agenda 21 UNCED

Creating an enabling policy environment supportive of the partnership between the public, private and community sectors; 7.77.(b)  Agenda 21 UNCED

 

Providing enhanced training and technical assistance to institutions providing training for technicians, professionals and administrators, and appointed, elected and professional members of local governments and strengthening their capacity to address priority training needs, particularly in regard to social, economic and environmental aspects of human settlements development; 7.77. (c)  Agenda 21 UNCED

 

Providing direct assistance for human settlement development at the community level,inter alia, by:

(i) Strengthening and promoting programmes for social mobilization and raising awareness of the potential of women and youth in human settlements activities; 7.77.  Agenda 21 UNCED

(ii) Facilitating coordination of the activities of women, youth, community groups and non-governmental organizations in human settlements development; 7.77. (d)  Agenda 21 UNCED

 (iii) Promoting research on women's programmes and other groups, and evaluating progress made with a view to identifying bottlenecks and needed assistance; 7.77.  Agenda 21 UNCED

(e) Promoting the inclusion of integrated environmental management into general local government activities. 7.77.  Agenda 21 UNCED

 

The broad objective is to facilitate allocation of land to the uses that provide the greatest sustainable benefits and to promote the transition to a sustainable and integrated management of land resources.  In doing so, environmental, social and economic issues should be taken into consideration.  Protected areas, private property rights, the rights of indigenous people and their communities and other local communities and the economic role of women in agriculture and rural development, among other issues, should be taken into account.  In more specific terms, the objectives are as follows: 10.5.  Agenda 21 UNCED

 

To review and develop policies to support the best possible use of land and the sustainable management of land resources, by not later than 1996; 10.5. (a)  Agenda 21 UNCED

 

(b) To improve and strengthen planning, management and evaluation systems for land and land resources, by not later than 2000;  10.5.  Agenda 21 UNCED

 

(c) To strengthen institutions and coordinating mechanisms for land and land resources, by not later than 1998; 10.5.  Agenda 21 UNCED

 

(d) To create mechanisms to facilitate the active involvement and participation of all concerned, particularly communities and people at the local level, in decision-making on land use and management, by not later than 1996. 10.5.  Agenda 21 UNCED

 

To strengthen forest-related national institutions, to enhance the scope and effectiveness of activities related to the management, conservation and sustainable development of forests, and to effectively ensure the sustainable utilization and production of forests' goods and services in both the developed and the developing countries; in the year 2000, to strengthen the capacities and capabilities of national institutions to enable them to acquire the necessary knowledge for the protection and conservation of forests, as well as to expand their scope and, correspondingly, enhance the effectiveness of programmes and activities related to the management and development of forests;  11.3.(a) Agenda 21 UNCED

 

In the year 2000, to develop appropriate land-use planning and management for both arable and non-arable land in mountain-fed watershed areas to prevent soil erosion, increase biomass production and maintain the ecological balance; 13.15 (a) Agenda 21 UNCED

 

In the year 2000, to review and initiate, as appropriate, national land-resource surveys, detailing the location, extent and severity of land degradation; 14.45.(a) Agenda 21 UNCED

 

Not later than the year 2000, to adopt policies and strengthen or establish programmes for in situ on-farm and ex situ conservation and sustainable use of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture, integrated into strategies and programmes for sustainable agriculture; 14.48           (c) Agenda 21 UNCED

 

Not later than the year 2000, to improve and implement plant protection and animal health services, including mechanisms to control the distribution and use of pesticides, and to implement the International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides; 14.75.  (a) Agenda 21 UNCED

 

Not later than the year 2000, to develop and maintain in all countries the integrated plant nutrition approach, and to optimize availability of fertilizer and other plant nutrient sources; 14.85.  (a) Agenda 21 UNCED

 

Not later than the year 2000, to develop and maintain in all countries the integrated plant nutrition approach, and to optimize availability of fertilizer and other plant nutrient sources; 14.85 (a)  Agenda 21 UNCED

 

Not later than the year 2000, to initiate and encourage a process of environmentally sound energy transition in rural communities, from unsustainable energy sources, to structured and diversified energy sources by making available alternative new and renewable sources of energy; 14.94 (a) Agenda 21 UNCED

 

(a) In the year 2000:

(i) To have designed and initiated costed and targeted national action programmes, and have put in place appropriate institutional structures and legal instruments; 18.11 Agenda 21 UNCED (ii) To have established efficient water-use programmes to attain sustainable resource utilization patterns; 18.11 Agenda 21 UNCED

 

All States, according to their capacity and available resources, and through bilateral or multilateral cooperation, including cooperation with the United Nations and other relevant organizations, as appropriate, could set the following targets:

In the year 2000, to have studied in detail the feasibility of installing water resources assessment services; 18.26.(a)Agenda 21 UNCED

As a long-term target, to have fully operational services available based upon high-density hydrometric networks. 18.26.(b) Agenda 21 UNCED

 

To reduce the prevalence of water-associated diseases, starting with the eradication of dracunculiasis (guinea worm disease) and onchocerciasis (river blindness) in the year 2000; 18.39  (e) Agenda 21 UNCED

 

All States, according to their capacity and available resources, and through bilateral or multilateral cooperation, including the United Nations and other relevant organizations as appropriate, could set the following targets: In the year 2000, to have ensured that all urban residents have access to at least 40 litres per capita per day of safe water and that 75 per cent of the urban population are provided with on-site or community facilities for sanitation; 18.58.(a) Agenda 21 UNCED

 

In the year 2000, to have established and applied quantitative and qualitative discharge standards for municipal and industrial effluents;   

18.58 (b) (In the year 2000, to have ensured that 75 per cent of solid waste generated in urban areas are collected and recycled or disposed of in an environmentally safe way.18.58  c) Agenda 21 UNCED

 

Freshwater fisheries in lakes and streams are an important source of food and protein.  Fisheries of inland waters should be so managed as to maximize the yield of aquatic food organisms in an environmentally sound manner.  This requires the conservation of water-quality and quantity, as well as of the functional morphology of the aquatic environment.  On the other hand, fishing and aquaculture may themselves damage the aquatic ecosystem; hence their development should conform to guidelines for impact limitation.  Present levels of production from inland fisheries, from both fresh and brackish water, are about 7 million tons per year and could increase to 16 million tons per year in the year 2000; however, any increase in environmental stress could jeopardize this rise. 18.67.Agenda 21 UNCED

 

FAO global projections for irrigation, drainage and small-scale water programmes in the year 2000 for 130 developing countries are as follows:  (a) 15.2 million hectares of new irrigation development; (b) 12 million hectares of improvement/modernization of existing schemes; (c) 7 million hectares installed with drainage and water control facilities; and (d) 10 million hectares of small-scale water programmes and conservation. 18.71.Agenda 21 UNCED

 

The development of new irrigation areas at the above-mentioned level may give rise to environmental concerns in so far as it implies the destruction of wetlands, water pollution, increased sedimentation and a reduction in biodiversity.  Therefore, new irrigation schemes should be accompanied by an environmental impact assessment, depending upon the scale of the scheme, in case significant negative environmental impacts are expected.  When considering proposals for new irrigation schemes, consideration should also be given to a more rational exploitation, and an increase in the efficiency or productivity, of any existing schemes capable of serving the same localities.  Technologies for new irrigation schemes should be thoroughly evaluated, including their potential conflicts with other land uses.  The active involvement of water-users groups is a supporting objective. 18.72.Agenda 21 UNCED

 

To strengthen international risk assessment.  Several hundred priority chemicals or groups of chemicals, including major pollutants and contaminants of global significance, should be assessed in the year 2000, using current selection and assessment criteria; Agenda 21 UNCED 19.13.  (a)    

 

A globally harmonized hazard classification and compatible labelling system, including material safety data sheets and easily understandable symbols, should be available, if feasible, in the year 2000. 19.27.  Agenda 21 UNCED

 

To promote intensified exchange of information on chemical safety, use and emissions among all involved parties; 19.38  (a) Agenda 21 UNCED

 

To achieve in the year 2000, as feasible, full participation in and implementation of the PIC procedure, including possible mandatory applications through legally binding instruments contained in the Amended London Guidelines and in the FAO International Code of Conduct, taking into account the experience gained within the PIC procedure. 19.38 (b) Agenda 21 UNCED

 

In the year 2000, national systems for environmentally sound management of chemicals, including legislation and provisions for implementation and enforcement, should be in place in all countries to the extent possible. Agenda 21 UNCED

The interim secretariat for the Basel Convention should undertake studies in order to arrive at a reasonable cost estimate for activities to be undertaken initially until the year 2000.

20.37.  Agenda 21 UNCED

 

Governments, according to their capacities and available resources and with the cooperation of the United Nations and other relevant organizations, as appropriate, should:

In the year 2000, ensure sufficient national, regional and international capacity to access, process and monitor waste trend information and implement waste minimization policies; 21.9. (a) Agenda 21 UNCED

In the year 2000, have in place in all industrialized countries programmes to stabilize or reduce, if practicable, production of wastes destined for final disposal, including per capita wastes (where this concept applies), at the level prevailing at that date; developing countries as well should work towards that goal without jeopardizing their development prospects; 21.9. (b) Agenda 21 UNCED

Apply in the year 2000, in all countries, in particular in industrialized countries, programmes to reduce the production of agrochemical wastes, containers and packaging materials, which do not meet hazardous characteristics. 21.9. (c) Agenda 21 UNCED

 

Governments, according to their capacities and available resources and with the cooperation of the United Nations and other relevant organizations, as appropriate, should:

In the year 2000, promote sufficient financial and technological capacities at the regional, national and local levels, as appropriate, to implement waste reuse and recycling policies and actions; 21.18 (a) Agenda 21 UNCED

In the year 2000, in all industrialized countries, and in the year 2010, in all developing countries, have a national programme, including, to the extent possible, targets for efficient waste reuse and recycling. 21.18 (b)Agenda 21 UNCED

 

Governments, according to their capacities and available resources and with the cooperation of the United Nations and other relevant organizations, as appropriate, should:

In the year 2000, establish waste treatment and disposal quality criteria, objectives and standards based on the nature and assimilative capacity of the receiving environment; 21.29.(a) Agenda 21 UNCED

In the year 2000, establish sufficient capacity to undertake waste-related pollution impact monitoring and conduct regular surveillance, including epidemiological surveillance, where appropriate;  21.29. (b) Agenda 21 UNCED

 

Governments, according to their capacities and available resources and with the cooperation of the United Nations and other relevant organizations, as appropriate, should:

           (c)        In the year 1995, in industrialized countries, and in the year 2005, in developing countries, ensure that at least 50 per cent of all sewage, waste waters and solid wastes are treated or disposed of in conformity with national or international environmental and health quality guidelines; 21.29.  Agenda 21 UNCED

 

The overall objective of this programme is to provide health-protecting, environmentally safe waste collection and disposal services to all people.  Governments, according to their capacities and available resources and with the cooperation of the United Nations and other relevant organizations, as appropriate, should:(a) In the year 2000, have the necessary technical, financial and human resource capacity to provide waste collection services commensurate with needs; 21.39 Agenda 21 UNCED

 

The following objectives are proposed for national Governments:

To implement the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women, particularly with regard to women's participation in national ecosystem management and control of environment degradation; 24.2. (a) Agenda 21 UNCED

To increase the proportion of women decision makers, planners, technical advisers, managers and extension workers in environment and development fields;  24.2. (b)  Agenda 21 UNCED

To consider developing and issuing in the year 2000 a strategy of changes necessary to eliminate constitutional, legal, administrative, cultural, behavioural, social and economic obstacles to women's full participation in sustainable development and in public life; 24.2.  (c) Agenda 21 UNCED

 

States parties to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women should review and suggest amendments to it in the year 2000, with a view to strengthening those elements of the Convention related to environment and development, giving special attention to the issue of access and entitlements to natural resources, technology, creative banking facilities and low-cost housing, and the control of pollution and toxicity in the home and workplace.  States parties should also clarify the extent of the Convention's scope with respect to the issues of environment and development and request the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women to develop guidelines regarding the nature of reporting such issues, required under particular articles of the Convention. 24.5. Agenda 21 UNCED

 

Each country, in the year 2000, should ensure that more than 50 per cent of its youth, gender balanced, are enrolled in or have access to appropriate secondary education or equivalent educational or vocational training programmes by increasing participation and access rates on an annual basis.  25.5.  Agenda 21 UNCED

 

In general, the financing for the implementation of Agenda 21 will come from a country's own public and private sectors.  For developing countries, particularly the least developed countries, ODA is a main source of external funding, and substantial new and additional funding for sustainable development and implementation of Agenda 21 will be required.  Developed countries reaffirm their commitments to reach the accepted United Nations target of 0.7 per cent of GNP for ODA and, to the extent that they have not yet achieved that target, agree to augment their aid programmes in order to reach that target as soon as possible and to ensure a prompt and effective implementation of Agenda 21.  Some countries agree or have agreed to reach the target in the year 2000.  It was decided that the Commission on Sustainable Development would regularly review and monitor progress towards this target.  This review process should systematically combine the monitoring of the implementation of Agenda 21 with a review of the financial resources available.  Those countries which have already reached the target are to be commended and encouraged to continue to contribute to the common effort to make available the substantial additional resources that have to be mobilized.  Other developed countries, in line with their support for reform efforts in developing countries, agree to make their best efforts to increase their level of ODA.  In this context, the importance of equitable burden-sharing among developed countries is recognized.  Other countries, including those undergoing the process of transition to a market economy, may voluntarily augment the contributions of the developed countries. 33.15.  Agenda 21 UNCED

 

The primary objective is to improve the scientific capacities of all countries/- in particular, those of developing countries/- with specific regard to:     (a) Education, training and facilities for local research and development and human resource development in basic scientific disciplines and in environment-related sciences, utilizing where appropriate traditional and local knowledge of sustainability; 35.21.  (a) Agenda 21 UNCED

 

A substantial increase in the year 2000 in the number of scientists/-particularly women scientists/- in those developing countries where their number is at present insufficient; Agenda 21 UNCED 35.21.  (b) Agenda 21 UNCED

 

IN THE YEAR 2002

 

Framework Convention on Climate change reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by 1990  .... by the end of the century ie. 2000 (UNCED, 1992)

32.          Advance implementation of the Global Programme of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-based Activities and the Montreal Declaration on the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-based Activities, with particular emphasis in the period 2002-2006 on municipal wastewater, the physical alteration and destruction of habitats, and nutrients, by actions at all levels to:

                (a)           Facilitate partnerships, scientific research and diffusion of technical knowledge; mobilize domestic, regional and international resources; and promote human and institutional capacity-building, paying particular attention to the needs of developing countries;

                (b)           Strengthen the capacity of developing countries in the development of their national and regional programmes and mechanisms to mainstream the objectives of the Global Programme of Action and to manage the risks and impacts of ocean pollution;

                (c)           Elaborate regional programmes of action and improve the links with strategic plans for the sustainable development of coastal and marine resources, noting in particular areas which are subject to accelerated environmental changes and development pressures;

                (d)           Make every effort to achieve substantial progress by the next Global Programme of Action conference in 2006 to protect the marine environment from land-based activities. WSSD

 

 

WSSD36. [Recalls the United Nations Millennium Declaration, in which heads of State and  Government resolved to make every effort to ensure the entry into force of the Kyoto  Protocol 15 to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change,16 preferably  by the tenth anniversary of the United Nations Conference on Environment and  Development in 2002, and to embark on the required reduction of emissions of greenhouse  gases, and calls upon States to work cooperatively towards achieving the ultimate  objective of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.] International,  regional and national actions are required to:

 

Greenpeace Comment: Brackets should be removed. If any other country disagrees, their position

could be reflected by way of a footnote.

 

WSSD 36 (a) Provide technical and financial assistance and capacity building to developing  countries and countries with economies in transition, in accordance with the Marrakech  Accords 17 for the implementation of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate  Change;

 

WSSD 36 (b) Build scientific and technological capabilities and networks for the exchange of  scientific data and information, especially in developing countries;

 

WSSD 36 (c) Promote the systematic observation of the Earthís atmosphere by improving ground-based  monitoring stations, increasing use of satellites, and appropriate integration of these  observations to produce high-quality data that could be disseminated for the use of all  countries, in particular developing countries;

 

WSSD 36 (d) Implement a strategy for integrated global observations to monitor the Earthís  atmosphere, with the cooperation of relevant international organizations, especially the United  Nations specialized agencies, in cooperation with the secretariat of the United Nations  Framework Convention on Climate Change;

 

WSSD 36 (e) Support the Arctic Council initiative to assess the environmental, social and economic  consequences of climate change on the Arctic as well as on the Antarctic, in particular the  impact on local and indigenous communities.

 

36.          Change in the Earth's climate and its adverse effects are a common concern of humankind. We remain deeply concerned that all countries, particularly developing countries including the least developed countries and small island developing States, face increased risks of negative impacts of climate change and recognize that, in this context, the problems of poverty, land degradation, access to water and food and human health remain at the centre of global attention.

 

The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is the key instrument for addressing climate change, a global concern, and we reaffirm our commitment to achieving its ultimate objective of stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system, within a time frame sufficient to allow ecosystems to adapt naturally to climate change, to ensure that food production is not threatened and to enable economic development to proceed in a sustainable manner, in accordance with our common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities. Recalling the United Nations Millennium Declaration, in which heads of State and Government resolved to make every effort to ensure the entry into force of the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, preferably by the tenth anniversary of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in 2002, and to embark on the required reduction of emissions of greenhouse gases, States that have ratified the Kyoto Protocol strongly urge States that have not already done so to ratify the Kyoto Protocol in a timely manner. Actions at all levels are required to:

  Meet all the commitments and obligations under the UNFCCC;

  Work cooperatively towards achieving the objectives of the UNFCCC;

  Provide technical and financial assistance and capacity building to developing countries and countries with economies in transition in accordance with commitments under the UNFCCC, including the Marrakech accords;

  Build and enhance scientific and technological capabilities, inter alia through continuing support to the IPCC for the exchange of scientific data and information especially in developing countries;

  Develop and transfer technological solutions;

  Develop and disseminate innovative technologies in respect of key sectors of development, particularly energy, and of investment in this regard, including through private sector involvement, market-oriented approaches, as well as supportive public policies and international cooperation;

  Promote the systematic observation of the Earthís atmosphere, land and oceans by improving monitoring stations, increasing the use of satellites, and appropriate integration of these observations to produce high-quality data that could be disseminated for the use of all countries, in particular developing countries;

  Enhance the implementation of national, regional and international strategies to monitor the Earthís atmosphere, land and oceans including, as appropriate, strategies for integrated global observations, inter alia with the cooperation of relevant international organisations, especially the United Nations specialized agencies in cooperation with the UNFCCC;

  Support initiatives to assess the consequences of climate change, such as the Arctic Council initiative, including the environmental, economic and social impacts on local and indigenous communities. WSSD

 

140        (f)            Mobilize national and international support for applied research and capacity-building, provide financial and technical assistance for the effective implementation of sustainable development of mountain ecosystems in developing countries and countries with economies in transition, and address the poverty among people living in mountains through concrete plans, projects and programmes, with sufficient support from all stakeholders, taking into account the spirit of the International Year of the Mountain 2002.WSSD

 

41.          Promote sustainable tourism development, including non-consumptive and eco-tourism, taking into account the spirit of the International Year of Eco-tourism 2002, the United Nations Year for Cultural Heritage in 2002, the World Eco-tourism Summit 2002 and its Quebec Declaration, and the Global Code of Ethics for Tourism as adopted by the World Tourism Organization in order to increase the benefits from tourism resources for the population in host communities while maintaining the cultural and environmental integrity of the host communities and enhancing the protection of ecologically sensitive areas and natural heritages. Promote sustainable tourism development and capacity-building in order to contribute to the strengthening of rural and local communities. This would include actions at all levels to:

                (a)           Enhance international cooperation, foreign direct investment and partnerships with both private and public sectors, at all levels;

                (b)           Develop programmes, including education and training programmes, that encourage people to participate in eco-tourism, enable indigenous and local communities to develop and benefit from eco-tourism, and enhance stakeholder cooperation in tourism development and heritage preservation, in order to improve the protection of the environment, natural resources and cultural heritage;

                (c)           Provide technical assistance to developing countries and countries with economies in transition to support sustainable tourism business development and investment and tourism awareness programmes, to improve domestic tourism, and to stimulate entrepreneurial development;

                (d)           Assist host communities in managing visits to their tourism attractions for their maximum benefit, while ensuring the least negative impacts on and risks for their traditions, culture and environment, with the support of the World Tourism Organization and other relevant organizations;

                (e)           Promote the diversification of economic activities, including through the facilitation of access to markets and commercial information, and participation of emerging local enterprises, especially small and medium-sized enterprises.WSSD

 

 

IN THE YEAR 2003

 

22          (a)           Promote the ratification and implementation of relevant international instruments on chemicals and hazardous waste, including the Rotterdam Convention on Prior Informed Consent Procedures for Certain Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides in International Trade so that it can enter into force by 2003 and the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants so that it can enter into force by 2004, and encourage and improve coordination as well as supporting developing countries in their implementation;WSSD

 

WSSD28. [Agreed] Promote effective coordination among the various international and intergovernmental bodies and processes working on water-related issues, both within the United Nations system and between the United Nations and international financial institutions, drawing on the contributions of other international institutions and civil society to inform intergovernmental decision-making; closer coordination should also be promoted to elaborate and support proposals and undertake activities related to the International Year of Freshwater 2003 and beyond.

 

WSSD 37 (b) [Agreed] Facilitate implementation of the Montreal Protocol on Substances that  Deplete the Ozone Layer 18 by ensuring adequate replenishment of its fund by 2003/2005;

 

74.          In furtherance of the region's commitment to sustainable development, there are ongoing efforts at the regional, subregional and transregional levels, including, inter alia, the Environment for Europe process; the fifth ECE ministerial conference, to be held in Kiev in May 2003; the development of an environmental strategy for the 12 countries of Eastern Europe; the Caucasus and Central Asia; the  Central Asian Agenda 21; OECD work on sustainable development, the EU sustainable development strategy; and regional and subregional conventions and processes relevant to sustainable development, including, inter alia, the Aarhus Convention, the Alpine Convention, the North American Commission on Environmental Cooperation, the Boundary Waters Treaty, the Iqaluit Declaration of the Arctic Council, the Baltic Agenda 21 and the Mediterranean Agenda 21.WSSD

 

 

WSSD 81 ALT (ii) [Focus the WTOís assistance efforts, in particular the 2003 plan, on  advancing the Doha agenda, and call upon the WTO secretariat to finalize its 2003  plan accordingly, including reaching out to members who have not provided their  input]; 

(c) Fully implement the Integrated Framework for Trade-Related Technical Assistance to  Least Developed Countries (IF) [and urge [developed countries]/[development partners] to  significantly increase contributions to the IF Trust Fund, and expand related follow-on  activity under the IF to address a greater number of least developed countries, [including  by extending the pilot programmes]]. 

THIS SECTION WAS DELETED  PICKED UP IN 84

84 (e)     Fully support the implementation of the Integrated Framework for Trade-Related Technical Assistance to Least Developed Countries, and urge development partners to significantly increase contributions to the Trust Fund of the Framework, in accordance with the Doha Ministerial Declaration. WSSD

 

 

81.          Welcome the successful and substantial third replenishment of the GEF, which will enable it to address the funding requirements of new focal areas and existing ones and continue to be responsive to the needs and concerns of its recipient countries, in particular developing countries, and further encourage GEF to leverage additional funds from key public and private organizations, improve the management of funds through more speedy and streamlined procedures and simplify its project cycle. WSSD

 

 IN THE YEAR 2004

 

WSSD22(a) [Agreed] Promote the ratification and implementation of relevant international instruments on chemicals and hazardous waste, including the Rotterdam Convention on Prior Informed Consent for Certain Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides in International Trade so that it can enter into force by 2003 and the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants so that it can enter into force by 2004 and encourage and improve coordination as well as supporting developing countries in their implementation;

 

WSSD30 (d) [Agreed] Urgently develop and implement national and, where appropriate, regional plans of action, to put into effect the FAO International Plans of Action , in particular the IPOA for the Management of Fishing Capacity by 2005 and the IPOA to Prevent, Deter and Eliminate Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing by 2004. Establish effective monitoring and reporting, and enforcement, and control of fishing vessels, including by flag States, to further the IPOA to Prevent, Deter and Eliminate Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing;

 

WSSD34(b) [Agreed] Establish by 2004 a regular process under the United Nations for global reporting  and assessment of the state of the marine environment, including socio-economic aspects, both current  and foreseeable, building on existing regional assessments;

 

WSSD52 (e) Effectively reduce, prevent and control waste and pollution and their health-related  impacts by undertaking, [by 2004], initiatives aimed at implementing the Global Programme  of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-Based Activities in Small Island Developing States; 

 

WSSD52 (g) [Agreed] Develop community-based initiatives on sustainable tourism by 2004, and  build the capacities necessary to diversify tourism products, while protecting culture and  traditions, and effectively conserving and managing natural resources; 

 

WSSD53 (a) [Agreed] Strengthening ongoing and supporting new efforts on energy supply and  services, by 2004, including through the United Nations system and partnership initiatives; 

 

WSSD55. [Agreed] Undertake a full and comprehensive review of the implementation of the  Barbados Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing  States in 2004, in accordance with the provisions set forth in General Assembly resolution S-22/  2, and, in this context, requests the 57 th session of the United Nations General Assembly to consider an international meeting for the sustainable development of small island developing  States. 

 

IN THE YEAR 2005

 

WSSD22 (b) [Agreed] Further develop a strategic approach to international chemicals management based on the Bahia Declaration and Priorities for Action Beyond 2000 of the Intergovernmental Forum on Chemical Safety (IFCS) by 2005 and urge that UNEP, IFCS, other international organizations dealing with chemical management, and other relevant international organizations and actors closely cooperate in this regard, as appropriate;

 

WSSD25. [Agreed] Develop integrated water resources management and water efficiency plans by 2005, with support to developing countries, through actions at all levels to:

 

WSSD 22(b) [Agreed] Further develop a strategic approach to international chemicals management based on the Bahia Declaration and Priorities for Action Beyond 2000 of the Intergovernmental Forum on Chemical Safety (IFCS) by 2005 and urge that UNEP, IFCS, other international organizations dealing with chemical management, and other relevant international organizations and actors closely cooperate in this regard, as appropriate;

 

WSSD 29 (a) Maintain or restore stocks to levels that can produce the maximum sustainable yield consistent with the precautionary approach as agreed in the 1995 UN FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries and the 1995 UN Fish Stocks Agreement with the aim of achieving these goals for depleted stocks [by 2005-15] [on an urgent basis].

NOW 30 (c)      Implement the 1995 Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries, taking note of the special requirements of developing countries as noted in its article 5, and the relevant Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) international plans of action and technical guidelines; WSSD

 

WSSD30(d) [Agreed] Urgently develop and implement national and, where appropriate, regional plans of action, to put into effect the FAO International Plans of Action , in particular the IPOA for the Management of Fishing Capacity by 2005 and the IPOA to Prevent, Deter and Eliminate Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing by 2004. Establish effective monitoring and reporting, and enforcement, and control of fishing vessels, including by flag States, to further the IPOA to Prevent, Deter and Eliminate Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing;

 

WSSD37(b) [Agreed] Facilitate implementation of the Montreal Protocol on Substances that  Deplete the Ozone Layer 18 by ensuring adequate replenishment of its fund by 2003/2005;

 

WSSD43(g) [Agreed] Accelerate implementation of the IPF/IFF proposals for action by countries  and by the Collaborative Partnership on Forests, and intensify efforts on reporting to the Forum  to contribute to an assessment of progress in 2005; 

 

WSSD48. [Agreed] Implement, within the agreed timeframes, all commitments agreed in the  UNGASS declaration on HIV/AIDS, emphasizing in particular the reduction of HIV prevalence  among young men and women aged 15-24 by 25 per cent in the most affected countries by  2005 and globally by 2010, as well as combat malaria, tuberculosis and other diseases by, inter  alia: 

 

WSSD61(a) Support the development and implementation of national policies and programmes,  including, research programmes and development plans of African countries to regenerate their  agricultural sector and sustainably develop their fisheries, increase investment in infrastructure,  technology and extension services, according to country needs. Countries should be in the process of  developing and implementing food security strategies, within the context of national poverty  eradication programmes [by 2005]; 

 

61 (a)     Support the development and implementation of national policies and programmes, including research programmes and development plans of African countries to regenerate their agricultural sector and sustainably develop their fisheries, and increase investment in infrastructure, technology and extension services, according to country needs. African countries should be in the process of developing and implementing food security strategies, within the context of national poverty eradication programmes, by 2005; WSSD

 

 

NO LONGER IN 83 WSSD83. [Call upon WTO members to fulfil the commitments made in Doha, notably in terms  of access to markets [including] for the exports of developing countries, especially LDCs,  particularly in areas of interest to these countries, by implementing the following actions  [while being mindful of the important deadlines that must be met to ensure progress by  the Fifth Ministerial Conference and of the opportunities that will result from the  successful conclusions of these negotiations by 1 January 2005]:] 

 

WSSD83.(alt.)[Call upon WTO members to be mindful of the important deadlines that must be  met to ensure progress by the Fifth Ministerial Conference and of the opportunities that  will result from the successful conclusions of these negotiations by 1 January 2005 in the  areas of greatest interest to developing countries, particularly in market access. In this  regard, reaffirming our commitments under the Doha Declaration we note the particular  significance to achieving sustainable development of the following aspects of the Doha  Mandate:] 

 

83.          Reduce unsustainable debt burden through such actions as debt relief and, as appropriate, debt cancellation and other innovative mechanisms geared to comprehensively address the debt problems of developing countries, in particular the poorest and most heavily indebted ones. Therefore, debt relief measures should, where appropriate, be pursued vigorously and expeditiously, including within the Paris and London Clubs and other relevant forums, in order to contribute to debt sustainability and facilitate sustainable development, while recognizing that debtors and creditors must share responsibility for preventing and resolving unsustainable debt situations, and that external debt relief can play a key role in liberating resources that can then be directed towards activities consistent with attaining sustainable growth and development. Therefore, we support paragraphs 47 through 51 of the Monterrey Consensus dealing with external debt. Debt relief arrangements should seek to avoid imposing any unfair burdens on other developing countries. There should be an increase in the use of grants for the poorest, debt-vulnerable countries. Countries are encouraged to develop national comprehensive strategies to monitor and manage external liabilities as a key element in reducing national vulnerabilities. In this regard, actions are required to:

                (a)           Implement speedily, effectively and fully the enhanced heavily indebted poor countries (HIPC) initiative, which should be fully financed through additional resources, taking into consideration, as appropriate, measures to address any fundamental changes in the economic circumstances of those developing countries with unsustainable debt burden caused by natural catastrophes, severe terms-of-trade shocks or affected by conflict, taking into account initiatives which have been undertaken to reduce outstanding indebtedness;

                (b)           Encourage participation in the HIPC initiative of all creditors that have not yet done so;

                (c)           Bring international debtors and creditors together in relevant international forums to restructure unsustainable debt in a timely and efficient manner, taking into account the need to involve the private sector in the resolution of crises due to indebtedness, where appropriate;

                (d)           Acknowledge the problems of the debt sustainability of some non-HIPC low-income countries, in particular those facing exceptional circumstances;

                (e)           Encourage exploring innovative mechanisms to comprehensively address the debt problems of developing countries, including middle-income countries and countries with economies in transition. Such mechanisms may include debt-for-sustainable-development swaps;

                (f)            Encourage donor countries to take steps to ensure that resources provided for debt relief do not detract from ODA resources intended to be available for developing countries. WSSD

 

WSSD103. Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education [by 2005] as provided in  the Dakar Framework for Action on Education for All, and at all levels of education no later  than 2015 to meet the development goals contained in the Millennium Declaration, with action  to ensure, inter alia, equal access to all levels and forms of education, training and capacity-building  by gender mainstreaming, and by creating a gender-sensitive educational system. 

 

NOW 113.         Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education by 2005, as provided in the Dakar Framework for Action on Education for All, and at all levels of education no later than 2015, to meet the development goals contained in the Millennium Declaration, with action to ensure, inter alia, equal access to all levels and forms of education, training and capacity-building by gender mainstreaming, and by creating a gender-sensitive educational system.

 

WSSD107 (d) [Agreed] Recommend to the UN General Assembly that it consider adopting a decade  of education for sustainable development, starting in 2005. 

NOW 117 (d)   Recommend to the United Nations General Assembly that it consider adopting a decade of education for sustainable development, starting in 2005.

 

 

WSSD145(b) [Bearing in mind paragraph 24(a) of the Programme for the Further  Implementation of Agenda 21, take further appropriate steps related to]/[Take immediate steps to make progress on the commitment [made in the Programme for the Further  Implementation of Agenda 21,] for] the formulation and elaboration of national strategies for  sustainable development [and begin their implementation by 2005] and should to this end,  as appropriate, be supported through international cooperation, taking into account the special  needs of developing countries, in particular the least developed countries. Such strategies,  which where applicable, could be formulated as poverty reduction strategies, which integrate  economic, social and environmental aspects of sustainable development, should be pursued in  accordance with each country's national priorities.

 

NOW NO DATE

145 (b)   Take immediate steps to make progress in the formulation and elaboration of national strategies for sustainable development and begin their implementation by 2005. To this end, as appropriate, strategies should be supported through international cooperation, taking into account the special needs of developing countries, in particular the least developed countries. Such strategies, which, where applicable, could be formulated as poverty reduction strategies that integrate economic, social and environmental aspects of sustainable development, should be pursued in accordance with each countryís national priorities. WSSD

 

 

 

 

IN THE YEAR 2006

WSSD32(d) [Agreed] Make every effort to achieve substantial progress by the next GPA Conference in 2006 to protect the marine environment from land-based activities.

 

IN THE YEAR 2007

 

[Adopt at the national level, policies leading to timetables for progressively phasing out energy subsidies which inhibit sustainable development. Developed countries should lead the way, and, subject to a satisfactory review in 2007, they could be followed progressively by developing countries;] 19(p.bis) Agenda 21, UNCED

 

NOW NO TIME REFERENCE

 

19 (p)     Policies to reduce market distortions would promote energy systems compatible with sustainable development through the use of improved market signals and by removing market distortions, including restructuring taxation and phasing out harmful subsidies, where they exist, to reflect their environmental impacts, with such policies taking fully into account the specific needs and conditions of developing countries with the aim of minimizing the possible adverse impacts on their development;

 

WSSD22(c) [Agreed] Encourage countries to implement the new globally harmonized system (GHS) for the classification and labeling of chemicals as soon as possible with a view to having the system fully operational by 2008;

 

2009

IN THE YEAR 2010

 

WSSD19(e) [[Diversify energy supply by developing cleaner, more efficient and innovative fossil fuel technologies, and promote the] increase [of] the share of [non-hydro]/[new] renewable energy sources [by at least 2%]/[with the objective of increasing the global share to at least 15% of total primary energy supply by 2010]. [To achieve this all countries should adopt and implement ambitious national goals.] [For industrialized countries, these goals should aim at an increase in the share of renewable energy sources of total primary energy supply by at least 2 percentage points of total energy supply by 2010 relative to 2000.] / [to at least 5% of total primary energy supply] [by 2010].] at the global level by 2010. To achieve this, all countries should adopt and implement specific national goals; ]]

NOW NO TIME LINES

19 (e)      Diversify energy supply by developing advanced, cleaner, more efficient, affordable and cost-effective energy technologies, including fossil fuel technologies and renewable energy technologies, hydro included, and their transfer to developing countries on concessional terms as mutually agreed. With a sense of urgency, substantially increase the global share of renewable energy sources with the objective of increasing its contribution to total energy supply, recognizing the role of national and voluntary regional targets as well as initiatives, where they exist, and ensuring that energy policies are supportive to developing countriesí efforts to eradicate poverty, and regularly evaluate available data to review progress to this end; WSSD

 

WSSD(d) [Agreed] Encourage the application by 2010 of the ecosystem approach, noting the Reykjavik Declaration on Responsible Fisheries in the Marine Ecosystem and Decision 5/6 of the Convention on Biological Diversity;

 

WSSD37(d) [Agreed] Improve access to affordable, accessible, cost-effective, safe and  environmentally sound alternatives to ozone-depleting substances by developing countries by  2010, and assist them in complying with the phase-out schedule under the Montreal Protocol,

 

WSSD42. Biodiversity, which plays a critical role in overall sustainable development and poverty  eradication, is essential to our planet, human well-being and to the livelihood and cultural  integrity of people. However, biodiversity is presently being lost at unprecedented rates due to  human activities; this trend can only be reversed if the local people benefit from the  conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, in particular in countries of origin of PAGE 29.genetic resources, in accordance with Article 15 of the CBD. The Convention on Biological  Diversity (CBD) is the key instrument for the conservation and sustainable use of biological  diversity and the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from use of genetic resources.  [Achieving a significant reduction in the current rate of biodiversity loss [by 2010]  includes actions at all levels to]/[With a view to having instruments in place to stop the  current alarming biodiversity loss [by 2010], actions are required at all levels to]:

 

WEAKENED

42.          Biodiversity, which plays a critical role in overall sustainable development and poverty eradication, is essential to our planet, human well-being and to the livelihood and cultural integrity of people. However, biodiversity is currently being lost at unprecedented rates due to human activities; this trend can only be reversed if the local people benefit from the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, in particular in countries of origin of genetic resources, in accordance with article 15 of the Convention on Biological Diversity. The Convention is the key instrument for the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity and the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from use of genetic resources. A more efficient and coherent implementation of the three objectives of the Convention and the achievement by 2010 of a significant reduction in the current rate of loss of biological diversity will require the provision of new and additional financial and technical resources to developing countries, and includes actions at all levels to:

 

 

WSSD47e) [Agreed] Promote and develop partnerships to enhance health education with the  objective of achieving improved health literacy on a global basis by 2010, with the  involvement of United Nations Agencies, as appropriate; 

 

WSSD48. [Agreed] Implement, within the agreed timeframes, all commitments agreed in the  UNGASS declaration on HIV/AIDS, emphasizing in particular the reduction of HIV prevalence  among young men and women aged 15-24 by 25 per cent in the most affected countries by  2005 and globally by 2010, as well as combat malaria, tuberculosis and other diseases by, inter  alia: 

 

2011

 

IN THE YEAR 2012

WSSD31(c) [Agreed] Develop and facilitate the use of diverse approaches and tools, including the ecosystem approach, the elimination of destructive fishing practices, the establishment of marine protected areas consistent with international law and based on scientific information, including representative networks, by 2012, and time/area closures for the protection of nursery grounds and periods, proper coastal land use; and watershed planning and the integration of marine and coastal areas management into key sectors;

 

2013

2014

 

IN THE YEAR 2015

WSSD6(a) [Agreed] Halve, in the year 2015, the proportion of the worldís people whose income is less than $1 a day and the proportion of people who suffer from hunger and, by the same date, to halve the proportion of people without access to safe drinking water;

 

WSSD7. [Dramatically reduce]/[Halve by 2015] the proportion of people lacking access to improved sanitation while sensitive to the needs of the poor, and protecting the environment, through actions at all levels to: OR

 

WSSD7. (alt.) [launch a programme of Action] [Support the Millennium Declaration development goal to halve, in the year 2015, the proportion of people who are unable to reach, or to afford, safe drinking water, and undertake a related effort for the people without access to improved sanitation, sensitive to the needs of the poor and protecting the environment. This would include actions at all levels to:]

 

7.             The provision of clean drinking water and adequate sanitation is necessary to protect human health and the environment. In this respect, we agree to halve, in the year 2015, the proportion of people who are unable to reach or to afford safe drinking water (as outlined in the Millennium Declaration) and the proportion of people who do not have access to basic sanitation, which would include actions at all levels to:

                (a)           Develop and implement efficient household sanitation systems;

                (b)           Improve sanitation in public institutions, especially schools;

                (c)           Promote safe hygiene practices;

                (d)           Promote education and outreach focused on children, as agents of behavioural change;

                (e)           Promote affordable and socially and culturally acceptable technologies and practices;

                (f)            Develop innovative financing and partnership mechanisms;

                (g)           Integrate sanitation into water resources management strategies.

 

 

WSSD8.[Launch an action programme]/[Take actions] to improve access to reliable and affordable energy services for sustainable development sufficient to facilitate the achievement of the Millennium Development goals, including the goal of halving the proportion of people in poverty by 2015, and as a means to generate other important services that mitigate poverty, bearing in mind that access to energy facilitates the eradication of poverty. This would include actions at all levels to:

 

8.             Take joint actions and improve efforts to work together at all levels to improve access to reliable and affordable energy services for sustainable development sufficient to facilitate the achievement of the millennium development goals, including the goal of halving the proportion of people in poverty by 2015, and as a means to generate other important services that mitigate poverty, bearing in mind that access to energy facilitates the eradication of poverty. This would include actions at all levels to: WSSD

 

WSSD23. Human activities are having an increasing impact on the integrity of ecosystems that provide essential resources and services for human well-being and economic activities. [As the natural resource base is vital for sustainable development, the current trend in loss of natural resources must be halted and reversed, where appropriate, at global and national levels by 2015.]/[Managing the natural resources base in a sustainable and integrated manner is essential for sustainable development.] In this regard, it is necessary to implement strategies [which apply the precautionary principle] [based on an ecosystem approach] to protect all [types of]/[classes of] ecosystems and to achieve integrated management of land, water and living resources, while strengthening regional, national and local capacities. [Concerns related to the conservation and sustainable use of natural resources should be integrated in all sectoral policies, strategies and programmes as well as in sustainable development strategies or, where applicable, poverty reduction strategies. Relevant existing environmental agreements and related instruments should be implemented fully and in a coherent manner.]

 

NOW NO TIME LINE.

23.          Human activities are having an increasing impact on the integrity of ecosystems that provide essential resources and services for human well-being and economic activities.

LEFT OUT [As the natural resource base is vital for sustainable development, the current trend in loss of natural resources must be halted and reversed, where appropriate, at global and national levels by 2015.]

 

Managing the natural resources base in a sustainable and integrated manner is essential for sustainable development. In this regard, to reverse the current trend in natural resource degradation as soon as possible, it is necessary to implement strategies which

LEFT OUT

 [which apply the precautionary principle] [based on an ecosystem approach] to protect all [types of]/[classes of] ecosystems

 

should include targets adopted at the national and, where appropriate, regional levels to protect ecosystems and to achieve integrated management of land, water and living resources, while strengthening regional, national and local capacities. This would include actions at all levels to:

 

 

WSSD24. Launch a programme of actions, with financial and technical assistance, to achieve the Millennium Declaration goal to halve, in the year 2015, the proportion of people who are unable to reach, or to afford, safe drinking water [and undertake a related effort for the people without access to improved sanitation]/[and to achieve a similar goal to halve, in the year 2015, the proportion of people without access to improved sanitation] This would include actions at all levels to:

 

24.          Launch a programme of actions, with financial and technical assistance, to achieve the millennium development goal on safe drinking water. In this respect, we agree to halve, in the year 2015, the proportion of people who are unable to reach or to afford safe drinking water

LEFT OUT [and undertake a related effort for the people without access to improved sanitation]/

as outlined in the Millennium Declaration and the proportion of people without access to basic sanitation, which would include actions at all levels to:

 

 

WSSD29(a) CHECK Maintain or restore stocks to levels that can produce the maximum sustainable yield consistent with the precautionary approach as agreed in the 1995 UN FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries and the 1995 UN Fish Stocks Agreement with the aim of achieving these goals for depleted stocks [by 200515] [on an urgent basis].

 

NOW NO DATE NOT URGENT

NOW 30(c)       Implement the 1995 Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries, taking note of the special requirements of developing countries as noted in its article 5, and the relevant Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) international plans of action and technical guidelines;

 

WSSD30. To achieve [equitable and] sustainable fisheries, the following actions are required at all levels:

(a) Maintain or restore stocks to levels that can produce the maximum sustainable yield with the aim of achieving these goals for depleted stocks [by 2015] [on an urgent basis].

 

WSSD38 (a) [Agreed] Achieve the Millennium Declaration target to halve in the year 2015, the  proportion of the worldís people who suffer from hunger and realize the right to a standard of  living adequate for the health and well-being of themselves and their families, including food,  including by, promoting food security and fighting hunger in combination with measures which  address poverty, consistent with the outcome of the World Food Summit and, for State Parties,  with their obligations under Article 11 of the Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural  Rights.

 

WSSD47(f) [Agreed] Develop programmes and initiatives to reduce, in the year 2015,  mortality rates for infants and children under 5 by two thirds, and maternal mortality rates by  three quarters, of the prevailing rate in 2000, and reduce disparities between and within  developed and developing countries as quickly as possible with particular attention to  eliminating the pattern of disproportionate and preventable mortality among girl infants and  children; 

 

WSSD56(e) [Agreed] Support the development of national programmes and strategies to promote  education within the context of nationally owned and led strategies for poverty reduction and  strengthen research institutions in education in order to increase the capacity to fully support the  achievement of internationally agreed development goals related to education, including those  contained in the Millennium Declaration on ensuring that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and  girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling and that girls and boys will  have equal access to all levels of education relevant to national needs; 

 

WSSD61. [Agreed] Achieve significantly improved sustainable agricultural productivity and food  security in furtherance of the agreed Millennium Development Goals, including those  contained in the Millennium Declaration, in particular to halve by 2015 the proportion of  people who suffer from hunger, including through initiatives at all levels to: 

 

WSSD69. [Agreed] Bearing in mind the target of halving the number of people who live in poverty  in the year 2015, as provided in the Millennium Declaration, the Phnom Penh Regional  Platform on Sustainable Development for Asia and the Pacific recognized that the region  contains over half of the worldís population and the largest number of the worldís people living  in poverty. Hence, sustainable development in the region is critical to achieving sustainable  development at the global level. 

 

WSSD99(a) [Agreed] Meet the development goal in the Millennium Declaration of achieving  universal primary education, ensuring that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike,  will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling; 

 

WSSD103. Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education [by 2005] as provided in  the Dakar Framework for Action on Education for All, and at all levels of education no later  than 2015 to meet the development goals contained in the Millennium Declaration, with action  to ensure, inter alia, equal access to all levels and forms of education, training and capacity-building  by gender mainstreaming, and by creating a gender-sensitive educational system. 

 

NOW

113.        Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education by 2005, as provided in the Dakar Framework for Action on Education for All, and at all levels of education no later than 2015, to meet the development goals contained in the Millennium Declaration, with action to ensure, inter alia, equal access to all levels and forms of education, training and capacity-building by gender mainstreaming, and by creating a gender-sensitive educational system.

 

 

2016

2017

2018 

2019

 

IN THE YEAR 2020

 

WSSD10. [Agreed] [URGENTLY, FUND PROJECTS TO ELIMINATE] By 2020 achieve a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers as proposed in the Cities Without Slums initiative. This would include actions at all levels to:

 

WSSD22. Renew the commitment [as stated in Chapter 19 of Agenda 21] to sound management of chemicals, throughout their life cycle, and hazardous wastes for sustainable development and for the protection of human health and the environment, inter alia, aiming to achieve [by 2020 ] that chemicals are used and produced in ways that [do not lead to]/[reduce] significant adverse effects on human health and the environment [based on sound science, risk assessment and risk management, bearing in mind the precautionary approach as set out in Rio principle

15 [and other [relevant] international instruments.]

 

2002

2023

2024

 

 

 

 

IN THE YEAR 2025

 

Unprecedented Increase in environmentally persistent wastes

 Unsustainable patterns of production and consumption are increasing the quantities and variety of environmentally persistent wastes at unprecedented rates. The trend could significantly increase the quantities of wastes produced by the end of the century and increase quantities four to fivefold in the year 2025. (21.7., Solid Wastes, Agenda 21, UNCED, 1992))

Early in the next century, more than half of the world's population will be living in urban areas.  In the year 2025, that proportion will have risen to 60 per cent, comprising some 5 billion people.  Rapid urban population growth and industrialization are putting severe strains on the water resources and environmental protection capabilities of many cities.  Special attention needs to be given to the growing effects of urbanization on water demands and usage and to the critical role played by local and municipal authorities in managing the supply, use and overall treatment of water, particularly in developing countries for which special support is needed.  Scarcity of freshwater resources and the escalating costs of developing new resources have a considerable impact on national industrial, agricultural and human settlement development and economic growth.  Better management of urban water resources, including the elimination of unsustainable consumption patterns, can make a substantial contribution to the alleviation of poverty and improvement of the health and quality of life of the urban and rural poor.  A high proportion of large urban agglomerations are located around estuaries and in coastal zones.  Such an arrangement leads to pollution from municipal and industrial discharges combined with overexploitation of available water resources and threatens the marine environment and the supply of freshwater resources (Art. 18.56, Agenda 21, UNCED, 1992)..

 

 

Governments, according to their capacities and available resources and with the cooperation of the United Nations and other relevant organizations, as appropriate, should:

In the year 2025, dispose of all sewage, waste waters and solid wastes in conformity with national or international environmental quality guidelines. 21.29. (d)  Agenda 21 UNCED

 

In the year 2025: To have achieved subsectoral targets of all freshwater programme areas.

 It is understood that the fulfilment of the targets quantified in (i) and (ii) above will depend upon new and additional financial resources that will be made available to developing countries in accordance with the relevant provisions of General Assembly resolution 44/228. 18.11 b) (i) Agenda 21 UNCED

 

In the year 2025, dispose of all sewage, waste waters and solid wastes in conformity with national or international environmental quality guidelines. 21.29 (d) Agenda 21 UNCED

 

In the year 2025, provide all urban populations with adequate waste services; 21.39 (b)Agenda 21 UNCED

 

In the year 2025, ensure that full urban waste service coverage is maintained and sanitation coverage achieved in all rural areas.21.39  (c) Agenda 21 UNCED

 

In the year 2025:

To have achieved subsectoral targets of all freshwater programme areas.

 It is understood that the fulfilment of the targets quantified in (i) and (ii) above will depend upon new and additional financial resources that will be made available to developing countries in accordance with the relevant provisions of General Assembly resolution 44/228. 18.1 (b)           (i) Agenda 21 UNCED

 

 

Last Updated on Sunday, 16 August 2015 11:04
 

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